Chink Paint vs Chinking

Article content courtesy of Perma-Chink Systems, Inc.

Many log home manufacturers offer squared log homes with cosmetic chink joints. Although some owners of these style homes ignore these cosmetic joints and just stain over them, others like the look of a chink style home which may be the reason that they bought the home in the first place. The question is…. when should you use Perma-Chink Log Chinking in these cosmetic joints versus using Chink Paint?

When cosmetic joints are less than 3/8 inches deep the answer is fairly easy. Unless the log home manufacturer specifies the use of Perma-Chink, Chink Paint is textured to look like chinking, less expensive and much easier to apply, especially if you are planning to do it yourself. Since there is no room for backing material, we have seen several instances when a thin layer of Perma-Chink was applied directly over bare wood and blisters formed in the chinking. Even if the bare wood is covered with masking tape it may still not be a good idea to use Perma-Chink. If the Perma-Chink only has a 1/4” lip of wood to hold onto on the upper and lower edges there may not be enough surface area for good adhesion. If Perma-Chink is applied and masking tape is used as a backer in shallow chink joints it’s especially important to make sure that the tape does not cover any edges. If it does there will be virtually no adhesion of the Perma-Chink at that point.

Whenever Chink Paint is used and a seam is present within the cosmetic joint the seam may be first sealed with Energy Seal. Once the Energy Seal is dry, Chink Paint can be applied over it. Do not use masking tape under Chink Paint. It will prevent the Chink Paint from adhering to the wood and may eventually peel off.

When cosmetic chink joints are 3/8 inches deep or deeper, Perma-Chink may be used but you should be aware that Chink Paint is a less expensive alternative that’s much easier to apply. If the joint is deep enough to accommodate both backing material and the proper thickness of Perma-Chink, it’s best to actually chink it to prevent water from accumulating on top of the bottom lip.

Log Home Glossary: Log Home Related Terminology and Definitions

Below you will find an alphabetized list of terms with definitions that are related to all things associated with log home products and maintenance. Knowledge is powerful! We hope the definitions help you when talking with contractors, researching products online, and when you call us at

ACRYLIC: A type of synthetic polymer used as a binder for high-performance water-based paints, stains and caulks.

AIRLESS  SPRAYER: A method of painting that uses high pressure to spray stain, paint or other materials.

ALKYD: A synthetic resin or binder used in most commercial “oil-based” stains or paints.

ATOMIZE: The breaking –up of paint or stain into fine particles or droplets by a paint gun.

BACKBRUSHING: The process of working the stain into a rougher surface after it has been sprayed while the stain is still wet.

BACKER ROD: Backer rod is extruded closed-cell polyethylene rod that is used in cracks, checks and gaps before filling them with sealants.

BEADING: Relates to the way oil based stains repel water.

BLISTERING: Effects of pressure from either a solvent or moisture under a coating causing swelling or blister in the finish.

BLUSHING: A milky appearance of a topcoat caused by high humidity where water condenses on or in the wet coating. Using heat ( hair dryer ) or a slower solvent or retarder.

BORATE: As related to use on wood, a water-soluble inorganic borate salt containing compound with insecticidal, termiticidal and fungicidal properties. Shell-Guard by Perma-Chink Systems, for example, is a borate.  Borates are used on bare wood for eliminating and providing protection against wood decay fungi and wood eating insects.

BREATHE (breathable): Stains that allow the passage of moisture vapor from the substrate ( wood ) through the stain.

CHALKING: Deterioration of surface exterior stain/paint upon weathering into a faded, powdery substance. Chalk should be removed prior to repainting.

CHECKS: Pronounced cracks in logs, timbers and wood siding.

COATING: A paint, stain, varnish, lacquer or other finish that provides a protective coating over a a substrate (wood or vinyl).

DRIER: A material used in a stain/paint that enables it to cure.

DRY TO TOUCH: Drying stage of a coating at which it has hardened/cured enough that it may be touched lightly without any of it adhering to the finger.

E.P.A.: Some stains have the approval of the Environmental Protection Agency.

FADING: Lightening of the stain/paint’s color, usually caused by exposure to light, heat or the weather.

FILM FORMING: A stain/paint which lays on top of the substrate (wood) and forms a film on the surface.

FLAKE OFF: Pieces of paint film or undercoat falling off a substrate, usually due to poor adhesion.

FUNGICIDE: An ingredient used in some coatings and sealants to help keep mildew and other fungi from growing on the surface.

CHINKING:  A water-based, synthetic textured sealant like mortar and has considerable elasticity and flexibility.

CHINK PAINT: An elastomeric, texture coating for renewing or changing the color of chinking.

GASKET TAPE:  A closed-cell, medium density (8lb.) PVC foam with pressure-sensitive adhesive on one side, gasket tape is installed between log courses during construction to form a uniform seal between the logs. It is flexible and provides a high performance seal against dust, light, air and moisture during seasoning of the logs.

GRIP STRIP: A chemically inert closed-cell polyethylene that is shaped (3 sided) to fit between log courses to form a flat surface for the application of chink or caulk.

HIGH SOLIDS: Stain/paints that have more pigment and resin (film formers).

HVLP: High volume low pressure spray equipment which delivers stain/paint at a low pressure of no more than 10 PSI ( at the air cap)  but with a greater volume of air. Produces higher transfer efficiency, less bounce back and overspray.

IRON TANNATES: Iron tannates form dark colored discolorations that can appear as streaking spots or large dark blotches, sometimes covering an entire wall. This process may take some time to occur resulting in tannate discolorations showing up several months after a stain has been applied. Bleach residue is responsible for most problems related to iron tannates but any product with high pH will do the same thing. That is why thoroughly rinsing any cleaner off the surface of wood before staining is crucial.

LATEX PAINTS/STAINS: Latex paint is a general term that covers all paints/stains that use synthetic Polymers such as acrylic, vinyl acrylic, styrene acrylic, i.e., as binders. The term  is applied to most water-based paints. They look milky when wet and clear when dry.

LIGNIN:  A organic substance binding cells, fibers and vessels which constitute wood and the lignified elements in plants, as in straw.

LOG GAP CAPS: Pre-cut log gap caps reduce air infiltration where round logs meet window and door trim.

MATTE FINISH: A stain/paint with a flat appearance; no sheen.

MILDEWCIDE: A chemical agent, often included in exterior stains, paints and caulk, that discourages mildew growth on the painted surface.

MILDEW/MOLD/ALGAE: Mold, mildew (a form of mold) and algae are colonies of living organisms that grow on the surface of many materials including wood. Their color rangesfrom white to black and colors in between. They are typically round with well defined edges. It forms most often on areas that tend to be damp and receive little or no sunlight. Also, if the substrate (wood) is not completely dry prior to applying some stains or paints, damp wood may lead to growth of mold.

NANO: As related to stains, finishes which have very small molecules ( nano particles) leading to deeper penetration into the substrate (wood), thereby sealing and protecting the surface for a longer period of time.

NATURAL LOOK OF WOOD: The term “natural” as associated with wood finishes (stains) may mean no color (clear), an actual color of a product or texture of natural wood.

P H: pH stands for the power of hydrogen. In chemistry, pH is a numeric scale used to specify the acidity or basicity of an aqueous solution (water). pH is important as related to logs/log siding when wood is cleaned.  After any cleaner is rinsed from the wood, a pH strip should be used to measure the pH.  Use a pH strip to catch rinse water at the bottom of the wall. If the pH strip measures from 6.5 –  7.5 the wall has been rinsed well. If not, rinse again and measure until normal. If the walls are not rinsed sufficiently, problems may arise that affect how the wood accepts the stain. Also, discoloration of the walls may occur weeks after a stain has been applied.

POLYMER: Synthetic organic materials used as resins, I.E.  in wood finishes and plastics.

PIGMENT: Tint (color)

PICTURE FRAME EFFECT: Fading and graying over time of interior wood  walls and wood flooring where pictures and rugs have been placed. Indirect UV exposure darkens the lignin in wood contributing to the picture frame effect.

RESIN: A clear or semi-clear part of a stain/paint film which gives solids or film build. Resin gives the finish shine, gloss, durability, adhesion, handling and drying characteristics.

SEALANT: In the log home industry the term sealant commonly means caulk or chinking.

SEMI-TRANSPARENT STAIN: Stain that alters the natural color of the wood, yet allows the grain and texture to show through.

SHEETING: Refers to the way water runs off water-based stains/finishes. They typically do not have paraffin and do not “bead” as water does on oil-based finishes.

SOLIDS: The part of the paint, pigments and resin which do not evaporate.

STAIN: A partly transparent coating that can color wood without obscuring the grain and/or the texture.

SUBSTRATE: Any surface to which a coating or sealant is applied.

TACK FREE:  Time in the drying of a paint/stain when it is not sticky but not completely cured.

TACKY: The stage in the drying process at which the stain/paint is sticky when lightly touched.

TOP COAT: As related to wood finishes, the final clear coat required with some family of products, such as Perma-Chink Systems Lifeline Advance Top Coat. NO top coat should be applied over a stain (wood finish) unless designated by that product line.

TRANS OXIDE PIGMENTS: As related to use on wood, high performance transparent iron oxide pigments with excellent UV absorption, transparency and weathering stability.

TREE RESIN BLEED:  Referred to as sap, pitch or resin that bleeds out of logs as hot weather approaches. The resin is produced mostly by softwood species like spruce, pine and fir. There is no way to outwardly determine if a log will bleed resin or not. Once bleeding begins, it is virtually impossible to halt the flow of sticky resin. It will burst through coatings and form a sticky mass on top of the finish. This process may continue for years.

UV: Exposure to direct or indirect sun.

VICOSITY: Determined by allowing a measured amount to flow through an orifice and measuring the time it takes for the amount to flow.

V.O.C:  Volatile Organic Compound refers to any carbon compound that evaporates under standard test conditions. Essentially, all paint and caulk solvents except water are classified as VOCs. Some government agencies are limiting the amount of VOCs permitted in paint because of concerns about environmental and health effects.

WATERBORNE: A coating containing more than 5% water in its volatile fraction.

WET ON DAMP APPLICATION:  Wet on damp means to apply a liberal, uniform coat onto the wood, and then within 10 – 15 minutes return to that section and apply a second coat while the first coat is still slightly wet or damp.

Learn How to Seal Checks in Logs

Article content courtesy Perma-Chink Systems, LLC

It is virtually impossible to prevent logs from developing cracks and checks as they age and dry. That’s because as a large piece of wood seasons, mechanical stresses build up until the surface stress becomes so great that the wood cracks. We call these stress cracks “checks.”

Do checks need to be sealed? Upward facing checks can collect water increasing the interior moisture content of the log. If they continue to collect water and the wood remains damp, they can eventually result in internal wood decay as well as provide nesting sites for carpenter ants and other insects. It is not necessary to seal checks on the bottom half of round logs since they do not collect water but for a uniform appearance you may want to seal them too. It is not usually necessary to seal checks or fissures that are less than 1/4” wide since they cannot accumulate that much water.

If your home is new and the logs or siding are green, it may be best to wait a year or so before addressing the checks. This allows the wood to reach an equilibrium with its environment and by then most of the larger checks will have opened. On seasoned wood or an older home that’s in the process of being refinished you can seal the checks either before or after applying a stain.

Checks and splits in logs present a different set of dynamics than those typically addressed by a caulk. They open and close as the log’s moisture content varies throughout the year. The opening width of a check may change as much as 50% from summer to winter. Most sealants are designed to cope with a different set of conditions and are ill suited for sealing checks. Check Mate 2 is specifically formulated to meet the particular requirements for sealing checks that appear in logs and log siding.

When initially applied 3/8” thick in a check the Check Mate 2 bonds to the sides of the check. As the check opens, the Check Mate 2 stretches to maintain a water-tight seal. The role the Backer Rod plays is to maintain a Check Mate 2 thickness of 3/8” during the application and two point contact with the wood. Two point adhesion enables Check Mate 2 to elongate and contract.

APPLICATION DIRECTIONS:check mate 2 step by step1. Begin by cleaning any dust, dirt, oil, solvent or previous sealer out of the check. Previously applied caulks can usually be easily pulled or scraped out with a hook knife. If the check is upward-facing and has allowed water penetration, pour some Shell-Guard RTU into it. This will kill any decay fungi present and prevent further deterioration of the log due to rot. If the wood within the check is damp from cleaning, rain or a borate treatment make sure the check has time to dry before applying Check Mate. You can speed up the drying process by blowing the water out of the check with a leaf blower. The last thing you want to do is to trap any water within the check.

2. For sealing checks 1/4″ wide or larger, Check Mate 2 should be always used in conjunction with Backer Rod. Insert the Backer Rod into the check and use a trowel or other implement to push the Backer Rod about 3/8” to 1/2” deep. If you push it deeper than 1/2” the cured Check Mate 2 will be too thick and may rip away from the sides of the check. If the Backer Rod is placed too close to the surface the Check Mate 2 may end up too thin and split.

3. For a neat, clean appearance you can use masking tape to mask off the wood on either side of the check. Be sure to remove the masking tape right after you tool the Check Mate 2 smooth. If you remove the masking tape after the Check Mate 2 has begun to dry you will pull the top layer of Check Mate 2 off along with the masking tape.

4. Cut the tip of the Check Mate 2 tube to about the same diameter as the checks you plan to fill (a little smaller diameter is better than one too large). Fill the space between the Backer Rod and log surface with Check Mate 2 using a standard caulk gun. Check Mate 2 must have good contact with wood on either side of the check and be sure the crack or check is completely sealed from end to end.

5. Tool the surface smooth with a trowel, spatula or wet finger and remove overflow immediately with a damp cloth. Don’t forget that the masking tape must be removed while the Check Mate 2 is still wet.

6. Check Mate 2 will dry to the touch in about one hour but complete curing may take several days depending on application thickness, temperature and weather conditions. The color of Check Mate 2 as it comes out of the tube is always lighter than the final cured color. Note: Newly applied Check Mate 2 Clear is white but turns clear when cured.

7. Clean tools and hands with soap and water.

Learn to Calculate How Much Caulking or Chinking You Need

Article content provided by Perma-Chink Systems, LLC.

When it comes to ordering sealants like Perma-Chink or Energy Seal there are two dimensions that you need to know in order to determine how much product you will need:

  • the width of the gaps or joints that you want to seal
  • the cumulative length (linear feet) of the gaps or joints that you want to seal

The width is fairly easy to determine. If it is a chink joint on a squared log, it is the average distance between upper and lower log surfaces.square log chink joint

If it is a round log chink joint, you first have to insert a length of proper size Grip Strip and then measure the distance between the top and bottom logs about 3/8 of an inch in front of the surface of the Grip Strip.

round log chink joint

In the case of Energy Seal caulk it is the width of the gap and size of the backer rod that determines the width of the Energy Seal.

backer rod energy seal

When estimating your purchase requirements for an entire log home the task of determining how many linear feet of sealant you will need can be somewhat overwhelming. However, if you break it down to one wall at a time and then add all of the walls together it becomes much simpler. Calculating the number of linear feet of chink joints or sealant gaps in a log wall is fairly easy when following these steps:

  1. Start by measuring the length of the wall with a tape measure.
  2. Then count the number of joints you need to seal. Usually it is the number of log courses minus one.
  3. When you multiply these two numbers together you have the linear feet of sealant required for that wall. Don’t worry about subtracting the windows or doors unless they take up a substantial portion of the wall area. You will need to seal around them anyway.
  4. If you are planning to run a bead of sealant in the corners or other vertical seamsenergy seal corner of round logs you need to know the height of the wall then multiply the height by a factor of 1.25 to compensate for the increased surface area created by the curvature of the logs.
  5. Once you have determined both the width of the sealant joint and total number of linear feet you will be sealing, reference the charts below to find out how many tubes, cases or 5 gallon pails you need for your project. If  you were thinking about using tubes of either product consider this, the price difference between two pails of Perma-Chink or Energy Seal and an equal amount of material in tubes more than covers the cost of a Cox bulk loading gun and follow plate.

Energy Seal Coverage Rates 

When applied to 5/16th to 3/8” thickness

(Note: 1 x 5 gallon pail = 20 x 30oz tubes = 55 x 11oz tubes)

Bead Size 11 oz 30 oz 5 gallon
1/2″ gap 16 LF 48 LF 975 LF
¾” gap 11 LF 32 LF 650 LF
1” gap 8   LF 24 LF 490 LF
For gaps over 1” use Perma-Chink For gaps over 1” use Perma-Chink For gaps over 1” use Perma-Chink For gaps over 1” use Perma-Chink

Perma-Chink 5 Gallon Bucket Coverage

(Note: 1 x 5 gallon pail = 20 x 30oz tubes = 55 x 11oz tubes)

Gap Width Coverage of 1-5 gallon Bucket
For Gaps Smaller than 1” in Width Use Energy Seal Caulk
1” 380 Linear Feet
11/2” 256 Linear Feet
2” 192 Linear Feet
21/2” 154 Linear Feet
3” 127 Linear Feet
31/2” 110 Linear Feet
4” 96 Linear Feet
41/2” 85 Linear Feet
5” 76 Linear Feet
6” 63.5 Linear Feet

Important Questions to Ask Your Contractor

woman contractorHiring a contractor to restore, clean or stain your log home can often be overwhelming. Below is a list of questions to help guide you through the process of selecting a contractor for your log home.  As a rule of thumb, ask these questions of at least two contractors and obtain at least two references from each contractor you are considering for the job.

  1. Are you licensed, bonded and insured? Do you have proof of insurance? May I see the proof of insurance?
  2. How many years of experience do you have working on log homes?
  3. Do you have your own team that you have experience working with or do you contract labor out?
  4. Do you have experience with pressure washing and cleaning log homes before staining? Can you provide me with pictures of other jobs you have completed this task for?
  5. What stain products do you have experience applying? Can you provide me with pictures of other jobs you have completed this task for?
  6. Can you provide me with an itemized bid?
  7. Is your bid an estimate or a fixed price?
  8. Can you provide me with an estimated time of beginning and ending the project?

To find contractors in your area for log home repair and finishing, head over to our Find a Contractor page.

Are you a contractor who would like to be listed on Click here to start the process.



How to Repair Log Rot

log rotThe best strategy when treating wood rot is to remove the rotted areas. See the options below for repairing wood rot.

For logs with significant rot damage (50% or more):

 If a log on your home is more than 50% eaten away by rot, the structural integrity of the home has been compromised and it is important to move ahead with a plan to replace the rotted log. Make sure to contact an experienced log home renovation professional to replace a log.  A number of such professionals can be found on the Find a Contractor section of

If you just have the beginnings  of a log rot problem (i.e. a soft spot in the log) consider the below treatments:

1. Remove, Protect and Replace

  • Make a vertical cut on either side of the soft spot to the depth of the soft wood.  
  • Then use a coal or vibrating chisel and hog out the rotted wood until you reach solid  sound wood.   
  • Level out the area to a flat surface.  
  • Coat the area with Shellguard RTU (borate) to prevent further expansion of rot.
  • Allow the Shellguard to dry for 3-5 days.  
  • Using a piece of log siding or a section of whole  log cut to the depth of the hole, cut a segment to precisely fill the gap.
  • Fasten the section in place with Liquid Nail and caulk all edges with Energy Seal. Apply  Shellguard RTU and then the wood finish you have selected.  
  • As water is usually the cause of rot issues, make sure that the source of the water problem gets solved.

2. Use a Epoxy system developed specifically for wood like the M-Balm and E- Wood epoxy system:

  • Following the steps listed above to hog out the rotted wood.
  • When you get to solid wood, coat the area with Shellguard RTU (borate).
  • Allow the Shellguard to dry for 3-5 days and then re-coat the area with M-Balm. M- Balm is a 2 part epoxy primer. This prepares the area to accept the E-Wood Filler.
  • Fill the primed area with E-Wood and shape to the log profile. The epoxy filler will be stronger than the original wood.
  • Sand the area and apply finish.
    • Please note: The E-Wood has little absorbency and must be used in conjunction with film forming finishes such as Lifeline Ultra 2  or Ultra 7 ,  Sikkens Log & Siding or WeatherSeal.  Penetrating products such as Q8 Log Oil and Seal Once Poly Blend  do not work well in this situation. E-Wood has a wood tone but it may not match your homes exterior wood tone. Use multiple stain coats to minimize any blotchiness and spotting.

Article authored by Bill Frykberg,

Using Wood Renew and Log Wash to get the most out of your Lifeline application

Wood ReNew is a safe, effective cleaner designed to remove mill glaze, mold, mildew, dirt and UV  graying from wood surfaces. If you are planning on applying finish to bare wood that is weathered or has extensive mill glaze  and you have chosen Perma-Chink exterior finishes, consider using Wood ReNew.  Wood ReNew contains a thickener that helps it adhere to log walls and siding. In addition, Wood ReNew will also help remove old worn Perma-Chink Systems exterior finishes.

Log Wash is a pH balanced liquid concentrate for cleaning log and wood surfaces. Use Log Wash to prepare the surface of bare wood for an initial coat of stain and as an annual/semi maintenance cleaner. If you are applying  Perma-Chink exterior finishes to bare wood without mill glaze or your are applying a maintenance coat of Perma-Chink exterior finishes, Log Wash is a great choice.

A part of the Perma-Chink family of products, Wood ReNew and Log Wash are designed to work compatibly with Energy Seal, Checkmate 2, Perma-Chink Log Chinking and all Perma-Chink Systems exterior finishes.  Wood ReNew and Log Wash are the preferred products for use with Perma-Chink Systems finishes.

Both Wood ReNew and Log Wash are available in 1 gallon jugs.


Perfect surface prep with KleenStart before applying Outlast Q8 Log Oil

Outlast KleenStart is part of CTA Products Group that manufactures Outlast Q8 Log Oil. Outlast KleenStart is gentle to wood fibers unlike harsh chlorine treatments. Great for anything wood or vinyl that requires deep down cleaning or brightening. Outlast KleenStart is the preferred cleaner on new construction when Outlast Q8 Log Oil will be applied or cleaning prior to applying a maintenance coat of Outlast Q8 Log Oil.

Uses: Both wood and vinyl siding, decks, roofs (wood,  composite and tile)  tents, full logs, outdoor furniture and fences. Loosens stains caused by mildew and mold for easy rinsing.

  • Biodegradable
  • Non-toxic
  • Contains 100% percarbonate. No fillers added!
  • Interior and exterior use
  • Removes mill glaze
  • Gently lightens grayed UV damaged wood
  • Brightens and cleans
  • Water thin solution- flows easily with a pump-up garden sprayer
  • Easily rinses off by garden hose or low pressure washer. No “slick bleach type” residue requiring excessive rinsing.

For more about applying KleenStart click here.

7 Tips for Preventing Log Rot

Logs and log siding come from trees. They are a natural product. The cause of wood rot is a fungi which grows rapidly in the presence of water that is trapped in wood. If  proper measures are not taken to prevent rot,  nature takes over.

Wood shrinks and expands naturally. This regular occurrence is caused by temperature and humidity. The expansion and contraction causes checks or cracks in the wood.  If those checks are upward facing they provide an ideal place for water to accumulate. When water mixes with naturally occurring fungi in an upward facing check, wood rot can result. There are a number of ways to prevent wood rot from day one.  Let’s look at each:

  1. Controlling water by design is a great way to prevent wood rot. Large overhangs and porches all around will keep water off your logs. If the water cannot get to your logs, rot will not be an issue. Gutters also do a great job keeping water from running off your roof, landing on a deck or patio and bouncing back up on the logs.
  2. All wood on your log home should be at least 24 inches off the ground. Make sure you design your foundation with enough height to make this a reality.
  3. Treat your logs and log siding first with an EPA registered wood preservative. The typical preservative options are borates such as those found in Shellguard and Shellguard RTU. These wood preservatives are safe to use according to the manufacturers directions and are effective at killing of the fungi that causes wood rot. These products are penetrators and must be applied to bare wood.
  4. A different approach to wood preservatives is a log home finish which is also a wood preservative such as Outlast Q8 Log Oil. This two in one product provides a beautiful finish as well as penetrating deep into the wood to kill off fungi. The active ingredient in Q8 Log Oil is Copper 8 Quinolinolate and it is just as effective the borate based product.
  5.  Another source of log rot is from water getting in around windows and doors as well as at corners and log butt ends. Energy Seal is the solution.  Before applying Energy Seal log caulk, always first insert a piece of backer rod.  No mater what species you have built your home from, you can rest assured that as temperatures rise and fall your logs will move. The backer rod allows the caulk to expand and contract without tearing.
  6. The best way to prevent rot is to keep water out of your wood. This can be done by using a top notch exterior finish on your logs and log siding and regularly maintaining that finish per the manufacturer’s directions. The key is maintaining that finish on a regular basis to keep water out.
  7. Logs and log siding are natural products. They shrink and check over time. When upward facing checks appear you should treat them to keep water out. The best way to deal with checks is to seal them up with Checkmate 2 .  First insert some round backer rod and then apply Checkmate 2 to a depth of approximately 3/8″. For step by step instructions on sealing checks visit




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